Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a disabling disease that affects the spinal cord and brain. In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks the myelin, (the protective sheath) that covers the nerve fibers and causes communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body. Slowly, the disease can cause deterioration of the nerves or permanent damage.


Symptoms of multiple sclerosis vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage and the type of nerves affected. Symptoms may differ from person to person and depending on the location of affected nerve fibers. Symptoms include:

  • Numbness in the limb or limbs.
  • Weakness.
  • Tingling in parts of the body
  • Electric-shock sensations during certain neck movements, especially bending the neck forward (Lhermitte sign is positive).
  • Dizziness.
  • Tremors.
  • Lack of coordination.
  • Unsteady gait.
  • Slurred speech.
  • Partial or complete loss of vision.
  • Pain during eye movement.
  • Prolonged double vision.
  • Blurry vision.
  • Prolonged double vision.
  • Fatigue.
  • Problems with bowel, and bladder function.
  • Problems in sexual function.
  • Lose the ability to walk independently.


The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown. It is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system malfunction destroys the myelin sheath. When the protective myelin sheath is damaged and the nerve fiber is exposed, the messages that travel along that nerve fiber may be slowed or blocked. The exact cause is unknown:

  • Occurs around 20 and 40 years of age.
  • Genetically transferred.
  • Infections.
  • Environmental factors.
  • Deficiency of vitamin D and low exposure to sunlight.
  • Certain autoimmune diseases like pernicious anemia, thyroid disease, psoriasis, type 1 diabetes, or inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Smoking, etc.



Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, that gives rise to focal lesions in the grey and white matter and diffuses neurodegeneration in the entire brain. Focal inflammatory infiltrates in the meninges and the perivascular spaces and produce soluble factors, which induce demyelination or neurodegeneration, directly or indirectly through microglia activation. Demyelination and neurodegeneration occur by oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage leading to a state of virtual hypoxia.


Blood tests:

A blood test is done to rule out other diseases with symptoms similar to multiple sclerosis.


Spinal Tap (lumbar puncture):

Lumbar puncture is done in which a small sample of cerebrospinal fluid is removed from the spinal canal to show abnormalities in antibodies that are associated with multiple sclerosis. Lumbar puncture also helps to rule out infections and other conditions with symptoms similar to multiple sclerosis.


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI):

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helps reveal areas of multiple sclerosis lesions in the brain and spinal cord.


Evoked Potential Tests:

This test records the electrical signals produced by the nervous system in response to stimuli. An evoked potential test may use visual stimuli or electrical stimuli and electrodes to measure how quickly the information travels down your nerve pathways.